Pain, Fear, and Vicarious Learning

Why do people react with fear when they see a snake, even though they have never been bitten by a snake or even had much contact with the reptiles? New research shows that the same areas of the brain that react to a personal experience involving pain or fear also react to watching someone else [...]

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The Dread Zone: Anticipating Pain

Neuroscientists have used fMRI to discover that the brain’s anticipation of pain can be as bad as actually experiencing the pain. Marketers should use pain references carefully.

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