License to Misbehave

Vitamins and InvulnerabilityIn Dietary Decoys, we saw that adding salads to a restaurant menu actually increased sales of french fries. Research in Taiwan exposes an equally odd fact: if we take a nutritional supplement like a multivitamin, we are MORE likely to exercise less and make unhealthy food choices.

Behavioral Licensing

Researchers at the National Sun Yat-Sen University tested subjects by telling subjects they were receiving a vitamin pill or a placebo, and then monitoring their behavior in several situations. In all cases the pill was a placebo. The group who thought they had consumed a vitamin pill were more likely to show less interest in exercise, to show more interest in enjoyable but potentially unhealthy “hedonic” activities, and to choose a buffet meal vs. healthy organic fare. In another experiment, the “vitamin” group walked shorter distances than the placebo group.

The researchers attribute this to a “perceived invulnerability” effect based on questions answered by the subjects. The vitamin group felt less vulnerable to risks than the group who knew they were getting a placebo.

As Wray Herbert notes in The Vitamin Paradox, this odd behavioral quirk could be problematic:

Earlier studies have shown that people can get a sense of moral license from actual exercise, leading them to eat more — and less-healthy foods — afterward. But exercise has known health benefits, so it’s at least an honest tradeoff. Vitamins may or may not enhance health — the jury’s really still out on that — so it’s a cheap and easy way to acquire moral license without any certain benefit.

From a marketing standpoint, the counter-intuitive behavior is interesting. While one might think that vitamin-poppers would be a great marketing target for health-related products and services, that might not be the case. It’s still possible that in the general population, vitamin takers would indeed be more interested in, say, exercise gear. Or, perhaps not… maybe they would be great prospects for decadent cuisine or alcoholic beverages. As usual, testing is critical – basing a major campaign decision on logic (or gut feeling) alone is a recipe for disaster.

Extending behavioral licensing to other domains is interesting, too. How many of our “obvious” behavioral linkages might be incorrect?


This post was written by:

— who has written 985 posts on Neuromarketing.

Roger Dooley writes and speaks about marketing, and in particular the use of neuroscience and behavioral research to make advertising, marketing, and products better. He is the primary author at Neuromarketing, and founder of Dooley Direct LLC, a marketing consultancy. Follow him on Twitter.

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6 responses to "License to Misbehave" — Your Turn


Jeff Libert 29. July 2011 at 12:34 pm

Science studies human behavior.

Science interprets human behavior.

Science explains human behavior.

Science predicts human behavior.

Science dictates human behavior by controlling that which science discerns controls human behavior.

Science controls human behavior.

Does that sound about right?

Should I be concerned? :P

I’m off to my science lab to discern the countermeasures needed to counter the controlling measures other scientists are attempting to foist on my behavior..

Unless, of course, “the (marketing) enemy” has already predicted this course of action and has put in place counter-counter measures to defeat my attempt to avoid control of my behavior . . .

Geesh . . . Back to the lab to discern how to counter the counter-counter measures . . .

. . . or maybe just see how the laboratory of evolution works this all out . . . (rumor has it the cockroaches win in the end . . . :( . . )


Roger Dooley
Twitter: rogerdooley
29. July 2011 at 12:41 pm

A few layers of tin foil should do the trick, Jeff. Or so I’ve heard.



Jeff Libert 29. July 2011 at 4:11 pm

Psst . . . Don’t tell anyone but tin foil actually helps to concentrate and amplify the secret brain control waves.

However, recent experiments indicate that whipped cream and strawberry jam – strategically applied – may have some promising results when it comes to blocking distracting brain waves.

At least that’s what the college students in a recent study were reporting . . .


Page 29. July 2011 at 6:28 pm

“Vitamins may or may not enhance health — the jury’s really still out on that…”
I think the jury is in (thought not the public). Every big peer reviewed study i’ve heard about suggests that vitamin pills (as opposed to being in real food) either do nothing or are bad for you.


David Brains 4. August 2011 at 3:31 pm

Can you link to some of those studies Page?


Page 4. August 2011 at 9:09 pm

For year I listened to Dr. Dean Edel [ ] the radio and he reported them fairly often. In spite of coming from a vitamin producing family he did not believe in the pill form. You might search his website and plow through the 100s of results for “vitamins”.


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