The Psychology of Beer

Beer psychologyThe US football season began this weekend, replete with tailgates, watch parties, and plenty of beer consumption. It’s timely that new research has been released showing that the shape of the glass has a huge effect on how quickly we consume beer.

Curvy Glass, Goes Down Fast

Researchers at the University of Bristol in the UK gave subjects a glass of beer. The subjects, who didn’t realize their consumption was being carefully monitored, watched a short documentary film and answered a few questions. The subjects were served in either a “fluted” glass with a curvy taper to a narrow base or a straight-sided glass. The straight-sided-glass subjects were an amazing 60% slower in finishing their glass of beer – nearly 12 minutes, vs. 7 minutes for the fluted-glass group.
Straight glass vs curved glass

The researchers attribute the difference to the difficulty of estimating the halfway point in the curvy glass. In other words, those drinkers had the wrong impression of how far along they were. Subsequent tests appeared to confirm this. When the glasses were provided half-full, there was no difference in speed of consumption. In addition, the researchers confirmed that subjects viewing the straight glass were much more accurate in estimating the half-full point.

Beer vs. Soft Drinks

Another surprising finding was that the slower consumption effect of the straight glass was totally absent for soft drinks. The soft drink in either glass shape was consumed in about the same time as the “fluted glass” beer was, i.e., the faster rate.

Short and Wide, Tall and Skinny

tall and short glassesAnother shape effect on beverage consumption has been measured, this time with juice. A Cornell study found that subjects both poured and consumed more juice when they used a short, wide glass vs. a tall, thin glass. The effect was most pronounced in children, who poured and drank 74% more juice in the short, wide glass condition. Adults were hardly immune, though, their consumption rose by 19%.

As with the curved/straight study, the cause appears to be our difficulty in estimating volumes. In this case, it’s caused by the “vertical-horizontal illusion,” a term for the human tendency to focus on heights more than widths. According to study author Brian Wansink, “When pouring into glasses, we tend to focus on the height of the beverage and basically ignore the width. That’s why we over pour into wide glasses but think we poured very little.” [Emphasis added.]

Bartenders Fooled, Too

Even professional bartenders are subject to the short/wide pouring error. A variation on the experiment with juice found that experienced bartenders asked to pour a standard shot poured an average of 27% more into short, wide glasses than tall, thin ones. (So, when you order a shot of that 25-year old Macallan Sherry Oak, be sure to point at the shortest, widest rocks glass and tell the bartender, “In THAT glass, please.”)

That the wide vs. narrow effect was found to affect both juice and spirits, it seems likely that it would apply to beer as well.

Shaping a Strategy

Bars and restaurants are in a tricky situation when it comes to alcoholic beverages. While every establishment wants to maximize sales, the operators must also be careful not to encourage over-consumption to the point of inebriation. In my experience, the majority of establishments do use curved, or at least tapered, glasses for serving beer. It may not have been a conscious decision, but they have clearly gravitated toward glass shapes that favor more rapid consumption. Not only does this boost sales, it may also enable restaurant and bar operators to turn over tables more quickly for patrons who plan to consume just one beer – another key factor in profitability.

Shorter, wider glasses may speed up consumption of all beverages, too. But bar owners beware – while beer and soft drinks will be poured to the capacity of the glass regardless of shape, hand-pouring spirits into that kind of glass might result in significant over-pouring even by trained staff. For bars that serve beer by the pitcher, wider glasses could speed up consumption and table turnover.

As individuals, we need to be mindful of these shape effects too. If we’re trying to limit our calorie or alcohol intake, we’re better off with tall, straight, slender glasses for beer and just any other beverage. Both curved glasses and wide glasses are likely to make us underestimate our consumption.

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This post was written by:

— who has written 957 posts on Neuromarketing.

Roger Dooley writes and speaks about marketing, and in particular the use of neuroscience and behavioral research to make advertising, marketing, and products better. He is the primary author at Neuromarketing, and founder of Dooley Direct LLC, a marketing consultancy. Follow him on Twitter.

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13 responses to "The Psychology of Beer" — Your Turn

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Suzanne
Twitter: prosperouscoach
7. September 2012 at 7:29 pm

Roger, no wonder my favorite bartender always seems to give me a tapered glass. I can see how the tapered versus straight edge can make a difference. Human behavior is fascinating. Suzanne

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Robert Tyson
Twitter: TheTysonReport
9. September 2012 at 2:21 pm

Really interesting Roger, thank you. My guess is we can kiss goodbye to seeing straight glasses ever again (bummer as I, for one, happen to like them)!

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Roger Dooley
Twitter: rogerdooley
9. September 2012 at 3:30 pm

Well, Robert, if your objective is to slow down consumption, straight glasses are perfect. So, at open bar events or bars with less than generous pours, you may still see those vertical sides!

Roger

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Crabby McSlacker
Twitter: CrabbyMcSlacker
10. September 2012 at 9:58 am

Seems like this could have ramifications for dieters too–pour that virtuous kale smoothie you’re trying to choke down into a curvy glass, and save the straight ones for beer.

I love all the studies out there about how clueless we are at estimating portions and what weird social and environmental factors can influence serving sizes and satiety. Hadn’t really considered the economic and marketing implications though!

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Rodrick Crider 10. September 2012 at 11:37 am

Tapered glasses stack easier. That is why restaurants gravitate towards them.

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Roger Dooley
Twitter: rogerdooley
10. September 2012 at 12:24 pm

Good point, Rodrick. A double win for them!

Roger

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Doc Sheldon 11. September 2012 at 10:02 am

Straight glasses are also a good bit less expensive from the mill.

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David Vexler 13. September 2012 at 8:03 am

In pubs today beer is poured into a glass wine glasses and mugs, clay and less plastic. But consider the type of clay is too bulky and heavy, and to take up much space. Also, through such dishes not see color drink. For example circling glass protects the beer from spoiling quickly. A pint of beer, which resembles a beer keg, causes a lot of emotions and tastes.

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Mason Prescott 14. September 2012 at 8:28 pm

I wonder if beer merchants came up with the curvy glass to replace the cylinder stein so that it would appear “more” but contain less.

Drinking for quantity would mean more curvies downed.

This is done with a lot of packaging—make 12 ounces look like 16.

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Roger Dooley
Twitter: rogerdooley
1. October 2012 at 4:57 pm

Hard to say, Mason. Generally, tall, skinny glasses lead people to think there is more than short, fat glasses. So, if you are serving alcohol and want to maximize the apparent amount without actually serving more, tall and skinny is good. I assume that’s one reason why martini glasses are conical – a straight “rocks” glass with the same amount of liquid would look half-empty.

Roger

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Chris
Twitter: cmygoodies
1. October 2012 at 4:37 pm

Another factor that first came to mind with the beer example was that men are attracted to “curves”. The fluted glass has a sexier look and feel than the straight glass. Plus with the curvy glass once you get down to the narrow end of the glass it is much easier to just slam the rest down if your buds are finished and buying the next round. :)

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Roger Dooley
Twitter: rogerdooley
1. October 2012 at 4:59 pm

Curvy glasses might be attractive for that reason, too, Chris. The vaguely hourglass shape of the original Coke bottle is suggestive of the feminine form.

Roger

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Pclan
Twitter: h_wasif
5. November 2012 at 6:50 am

Hi,

I think curve or strait is not matter,our concerned is to only drinking drinking and drinking :p

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8 responses to "The Psychology of Beer" — Your Turn

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